Since ancient times, people are at some distance from each other, were in need of communication or transmission of any messages. Ways to do this at different times there were varied.
The most reliable way for quite some time and were runners postal birds . Also, as a means of communication used by the smoke , fire, specially trained criers . In the XVI century Italian scientist Giovanni della Porta proposed to establish a system of negotiating pipes laid across Italy . However, his idea was not supported and has not been put into practice . In 1837, American inventor Samuel Morse invented the transmitting machine - the electric telegraph and invented a system of codes - telegraph Morse ( Morse code ) .In 1861, German scientist Philip Rice invented a device capable of transmitting sound over a distance on the wire. In fact, this was the first phone . However, discoverer of the phone got amerikanskomuTelefon inventor Alexander Graham Bell Bell patented his telephone February 14, 1876 . Simultaneously with an application for a similar device , another American inventor filed Elish Gray. But since it was filed on 2 hours later , a patent was issued Graham Bell . Later, Gray filed a case against the opponent , but lost it. But despite the inconsistency of this discovery , it marked the beginning of a new era in the field of communications - telephony era .
In 1878, Thomas Edison perfected the telephone by entering the circuit induction coil and the carbon microphone . This has greatly increased the distance between subscribers . In the same year, was commissioned first telephone exchange in a small American city of New Cheyven . In 1887, Russian inventor K.A.Mostsitsky created automatic switch, which foreshadowed the creation of automatic telephone exchanges .
By the way the first audio message transmitted by telephone Bell was: "Mr. Watson, come here , I need you . " In Russia, the first telephone conversation took place in 1879