ПОМОГИТЕ СОСТАВИТЬ 5 СТАНДАРТНЫХ ВОПРОСТО В К ЭТОМУ ТЕКСТУ (альтернативный общий и тд) 1. Young people are active participants in their own history. Past generations of radical students have played a part in protests and revolutions against the existing order of society. A youth movements this sense has an ideological or political character.

At the same time ordinary young people usually belong to a youth movement through membership of an adult-led, voluntary youth organization, such as the Scouts or Guides. There are also fashion-led "youth cultures", identified by types of dress, music and language. The term "youth movement" is so wide that it can refer to Punk Rockers as well as the Young Conservatives.

2. The world's first voluntary youth organization was the Church-based Boys' Brigade, founded in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1883 by William Alexander Smith (1854-1914) and dedicated to religious edu­cation and developing the habits of Obedience, Reverence, Discipline, Self-Respect, and all that tends towards a true Christian manliness.

In the 1900s, in Germany appeared a movement of middle-class students who took up open-air tramping. Richard Schirmann, a German schoolteacher, opened the first youth hostel in 1909. Youth hostels providing cheap accom­modation for young people are now found in most areas of the world.

In England, Major-General Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) founded a uniformed woodcraft movement — the Boy Scouts — in 1908. Like the Boys' Brigade, the Scout movement has spread around the world. A sister organiza­tion to the Scouts, the Girl Guide Association, founded in 1910, also has a large membership worldwide. These organizations train boys and girls in various useful skills, such as lighting a fire, cooking, fishing, and for developing their character. Scouts traditionally carry a penknife and their motto is "Be prepared".

3. Young people have contributed to mass politi­cal movements of both left and right. In the 1930s there functioned youth Fascist organizations in Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany. After 1933 membership of the Nazi Hitler Youth became com­pulsory. In Britain some young people joined the Blackshirts. The Austrian Red Falcons were an active 1930s socialist movement.

Soviet Russia had Young Communist groups: Octobrist, Pioneer and Komsomol whose aim was political education of young people.

4. Since World War II the media have spoken a lot about the activities of various notorious youth cults, thus spreading information about them. The Teddy Boys of the 1950s, with their long jackets, vel­vet collars, drainpipe trousers and crepe-soled shoes were the first of the rebellious working-class youth cults. In the early 1960s came new groups such as the Mods, dressed in Italian-style clothes, and their leather-clad rivals, the Rockers, associated with motorcycles and rock-and-roll music.

The Hippies of the late 1960s were more middle-class. They experimented with drugs, lived in com­munities, grew their hair long, and were attracted to radical politics.

Skinheads combining elements of both Mods and Rockers and associated with the racism of the far right, arrived on the scene in the late 1960s. Punk Rockers achieved notoriety through the attention of the media in the late 1970s, with their unique “Mohican” hairstyles, vivid make-up, cas-off clothes and aggressive music. Several of these youth cultures wew recycled in the 1980s.


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Are young people active participants in their own history? What is the term "youth movement"? When did a German schoolteacher open the first youth hostel? Young people have contributed to mass political movements of both left and fright, haven't they? Did British young people join the Blackshirts or Grayshirts?