in December 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the INF ( Intermediate Nuclear Force) Treaty in Washington signifying a new warmth of feeling between the superpowers. To many people it meant that the cold war was beginning to come to an end. This was supported by changes in Soviet foreign policy. In 1988, troops were removed from Afghanistan after nine years of bitter fighting.
By the late 1980s the influence of Gorbachev`s reforms had begun to be felt in the Communist countries of Eastern Europe. These countries got much greater autonomy. The effects were dramatic.
Almost immediately, as travel restrictions eased, people tried to leave countries such as East Germany for the West. By November 1989 the decision to open the border between East and west Germany had been made. On 9 November, people from the two sides helped to destroy the Berlin wall, for long a symbol of the divide.Soon after that radical political changes were made in a number of East European countries - Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia. In the new atmosphere of reform the two Germanies reunited. The cold war came to an official end in November 1990, when 34 countries representing the old East- West divide signed the Charter of Paris for a new Europe.