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The Russian Federation (Russian) is the world’s largest country in area. It extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. It is located in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers. Russia borders many countries, such as Finland, the Ukraine, the Baltic States, China, Mongolia, and others.
The surface of Russia is various. You can see lowlands and highlands, forests and wide grasslands on its territory. The Russian Federation is situated on two plains. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, which separate Europe and Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. There are many rivers and lakes in our country. Major rivers include the Volga in Europe, the Yenisei, the Ob, and the Lena in Asia. Lake Baikal in Siberia is the world’s deepest lake.
There are different climatic zones on the vast area of our country. In the north, it is very cold, even in summer. The central part of the country has a mild climate. In the south, it is warm, even in winter. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry and winters are very cold.
Russia has abundant natural resources, which, besides large areas of forests, vast fertile soils, and a great water supply, in clued large deposits of gas, coal, iron ore, ect. Three quarters of the minerals wealth are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.
The population Russia is over 150 million people. Most of Russia’s people (over 80 per cent) are ethnic Russians, but more than 100 minority nationalities also live in our country. The European part of the country is densely populated. Most of the people (about 70 per cent) prefer to live in cities, towns, and their outskirts. The official language of the country is Russian.
The head of the state is the President, who is the commander-in-chief of armed forces. The President appoints the ministers, but they must be approved by the Federal Assembly. The head of the government is the Prime Minister.
The Russian flag was adopted in 1991. It has there horizontal stripes which symbolize: white – the earth, blue – sky, red – the freedom. Besides the Russian Flag, there is another national symbol of Russia – a two – headed eagle.