Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution and ensured by the broad development of compulsory secondary education, vocational, specialised secondary and higher education, by the development of correspondence and evening courses, by the provisions of state scholarships, grants and privileges for students.
In Russia there is a nine-year compulsory education, but to enter a university one has to study two years more.
School-starts at the age of six for Russian children. But most of them have learnt letters in kindergarten which is now part of primary school. Primary and secondary schools together comprise eleven years of study. Every school has a "core curriculum" of Russian, mathematics, sciences, PT. A variety of subjects are taught at lyceums and gymnasiums.
After finishing secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium one can go on to higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Higher educational institutions are headed by Rectors. Vice-rectors are in charge of the academic and scientific work. Higher educational institutions train undergraduates and graduate students in one or several specialisation's. The faculties are headed by the Deans. There are departments within faculties. The system of higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: decentralisation of the higher education system, development of the autonomy of higher educational institutions, expansion of academic freedoms of faculties and students, development of new financial mechanism. All Russian schools until recently were state-subsidised.
In the terms of the ration of students to the total population Russia ranks among the top ten countries in the world.
The Russian educational policy is a combination of economic and social objectives. An educated person contributes more to the society and education on the other hand gives a person the prospect for professional advance. The citizens of Russia show a great concern for education for themselves and their children.
Institutions of higher education include: technical training, schools, teachers training colleges, universities which offer master's and doctoral degrees programmes.
The faculties have specialised councils for conferring advanced academic degrees.