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Leonardo (Лионардо) da Vinci (1452-1519) - painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, scientist. Born on April 15, 1452, in the town of Vinci, n Florence, the illegitimate son of a local notary Pierre Serra Da and a young peasant woman Catarina. Brought up in the house of the father, and with it moved in 1469, (and maybe even in 1466) in Florence. First the ego's name can be found over in the book of corporations of the Florentine artists of 1472 In 1469-1476 biennium (and perhaps to the 1478) worked in botteghe Verrocchio, in 1480 mentioned as having its own workshop. The first evidence of independent work: the order for the altarpiece is a chapel of St. Bernard in the Palace of the Signoria (1478; it has not) and the agreement on the Adoration of the Magi to the monastery of San Donato a Scopeto (1481; work was incomplete). In 1482-1499 years in Milan, in the service of the Duke Ludovico Il Moro, as the University engineer, architect, sculptor and painter. In April 1500, Leonardo da Vinci returned to Florence (through Mantua and Venice). In 1502 about years of Cesare Borgia, on whose behalf toured Romagna, Umbria and Tuscany. In 1503-1506's. in Florence is working on a mural in the hall of the Great Council of the Palace della Signoria (the"Battle of Anghiari"), in 1506 returned to Milan in the service of the French Governor Charles d'amboise, where he lives up to 1513, (with a break for a trip to Florence in 1507). With both ends 1513 in rime, where in 1516, was invited by king Francis I of France to the post of first painter, architect and mechanics of the king. Died in the castle cloud 2 yeast 1519, saying manuscript heritage of the pupil of Francesco Melzi, accompanied ego France. Leonardo da Vinci was a great artist-painter, sculptor and architect, but the ingenious scientist, studying mathematics, mechanics, physics, astronomy, Geology, botany, anatomy and physiology of human and animals, consistently carried out the principle of experimental research. The ego manuscripts are drawings of flying machines, parachute and helicopter, new designs and screw-cutting machine tools, printing, woodworking and other machines of differing accuracy anatomical drawings, thoughts relating to mathematics, optics, cosmology (the idea of physical homogeneity of the universe), and other Sciences. About seven thousand pages of the extant manuscripts (written in Italian in the most right-to-left mirror) were later separated and stored now in the libraries of London, Windsor, Paris, Milan and Turin.