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The term “engineering” is a modern
one. The New Marriam-Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word
“engineering” as the practical application of scientific and mathematical
principles. Nowadays the term “engineering” means, as a rule, the art of designing,
constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied in a more extended
sense. It is applied also to the art of executing such works as the objects of
civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical
appliances are used. Engineering is divided is divided into many branches. The
most important of them are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining,
military, marine and sanitary engineering.

While definition “civil engineering”
dates back only two centuries, the profession of civil engineer is as old as
civilized life. It started developing with the rise of ancient Rome. In order
to understand clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us
consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering. Some
form of building and utilization of the materials and forces of nature have
always been necessary for the people from the prehistoric times. The people had
to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the
conflict with nature.

First the word “civil engineering”
was used to distinguish the work of the engineer with a non-military purpose
from that of a military engineer. And up about the middle of the 18th
century there were two main branches of engineering – civil and military. The
former included all those branches of the constructive art not directly connected
with military operations and the construction of fortifications, while the
latter, military engineering, concerned itself with the applications of science
and the utilization of building materials in the art of war.

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Ответы и объяснения

2013-09-16T00:28:54+04:00
1. Общий.  Does the New Marriam-Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word “engineering” as the practical application of scientific and mathematical
principles?

Ответ: The New Marriam-Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word
“engineering” as the practical application of scientific and mathematical
principles.

2) Разделительный.  It is applied also to the art of executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical
appliances are used, isn't it?
Ответ: Yes, it is.

3) Альтернативный
Did it start or finish developing with the rise of ancient Rome?
Ответ: 
It started developing with the rise of ancient Rome.
Специальный к подлежащему
Who had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the
conflict with nature?
Ответ:
The people had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with nature.
Специальный:
How many main branches of engineering were there
up about the middle of the 18th century?
Ответ:
And up about the middle of the 18th century there were two main branches of engineering – civil and military.