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ELECTRONICS 1. Electronics is a branch of physics that deals with the emission, behaviour, and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices. Electronics encompasses an exceptionally broad range of technology. The term originally was applied to the study of electron behaviour and movement. It came to be used in its broader sense with advances in knowledge about the fundamental nature of electrons and about the way in which the motion of these particles could be utilized. Today many scientific and technical disciplines—including physics, chemistry, materials science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering—deal with different aspects of electronics. 2. Research in these fields has led to the development of such key devices as transistors, integrated circuits, lasers, and optical fibres. These in turn have made it possible to manufacture a wide array of electronic consumer, industrial, and military products. These products range from cellular radiotelephone systems and videocassette recorders to high-performance supercomputers and sophisticated weapons systems. The impact of electronics on modern life has been pervasive. It can be said that the world is in the midst of an electronic revolution at least as significant as the industrial revolution of the 19th century. Evidence of this is apparent everywhere. 3. Electronics is essential, for example, in telecommunications. An ever-increasing volume of information is transmitted in digital form. Digital techniques, in which signals are converted into groups of pulses, allow the intermingling of voice, television, and computer signals into one very rapid series of pulses on a single channel that can be separated at the receiving end and reconstituted into the signals originally sent. Because the digital pulses can be regenerated perfectly after they become attenuated with distance, no noise or other degradation is apparent at the receiving end. 4. Electronic controls for industrial machines and processes have made possible dramatic improvements in productivity and quality. Computer-aided design tools facilitate the designing of parts that have complex shapes, such as aircraft wings, or intricate structures, such as integrated circuits. The production of designs of this sort is done by computer-controlled machines that receive instructions directly from the design tools. 5. Access to knowledge has been made far easier by computerized indexes of scientific and technical journals, which are accessible from centralized services over telephone lines. These central databases are being supplemented by new techniques derived from digital audio and video disc technology, which provide locally, and at low cost, access to vast amounts of information in text and graphic form.


Ответы и объяснения

1.Electronics in our lives.
2.Echievements of
3. Electronics and telecommunications.
4.Electronics and databases