Перевести текст !!! THE HISTORY OF OPERAITING SYSTEMS Since operating systems have been tied historically and closely to the architecture of the computers
on which they run, we will look at the successive generations of the computers to see what their operating systems will like. The first true digital computer was designed by the English mathematician Charles Babbage (1792-1871). Although Babbage was spending most of his life and fortune trying to build his "analytical engine,"he never got his work properly because it was purely mechanical,and the technology of his day could not produce the required wheels, gears, and cogs to the high precision that he needed. Needless to say, the analytycal engine did not have an operaiting system. Babbage realized that he needed soft ware for his analytycal engine, so he hired a young woman as the world's first programmer.Her name Ada Lovelace, who was the daughter of the famous British poet Lord Byron. After Babbage's unsuccessful efforts, until World War ll little progress was made in constructing digital computers . Around the mid-1940s, Howard Aiken at Harvard , John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton,J. Presper Eckert and William Mauchley at the University of Pennsylvania, and Konrad Zuse in Germany,among others , all succeeded in building calculating engines. The first one used mechanical relays but it were very slowly, with cycle times measured in seconds. Relays were later replaced by vacuum tubes.These machines were enormous, filling up entire rooms with ten of thousands of vacuum tubes,but they were still millions of times slower than even the cheapest personal computers available today. In these early days a single group of people designed,built,programmed, operaited,and maintained each machine. All programms were doing in absolute machine language,often by wiring up plug boards to control the basic functions of machine's.