Перевести текст!!!! Since operating systems have historically been closely tied to the architecture of the computers on which they run, we bwill look at
succeswsive generatiions of computers to see what their operaiting systems were like. The first true digital computer was designed by the English mathematician Charles Babbage (1792-1871). Although Babbage spent most of his life and fortune trying to build his "analytical engine,"he never got it working properly because it was purely mechanical,and the technology of his day could not produce the required wheels, gears, and cogs to the high precision that he needed. Needless to say, the analytycal engine did not have an operaiting system. Babbage realized that he would need soft ware for his analytycal engine, so he hired a young woman named Ada Lovelace, who was the daughter of the famed British poet Lord Byron, as the world's first programmer. The programming language Ada is named after her. After Babbage's unsuccessful effrts, little progress was made in constructing digital computers until World War ll. Around the mid-1940s, Howard Aiken at Harvard , John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton,J. Presper Eckert and William Mauchley at the University of Pennsylvania, and Konrad Zuse in Germany,among others , all succeeded in building calculating engines. The first ones used mechanical relays but were very slow, with cycle times measured in seconds. Relays were later replaced by vacuum tubes.These machines were enormous, filling up entire rooms with tens of thousands of vacuum tubes,but they were still millions of times slower than even the cheapest personal computers available today. In these early days asingle group of people designed,built,programmed, operaited,and maintainat each machine.All programmig was done in absolute machine language,often by wiring up plug boards to control the machine's basiv functions.